In a healthy bladder there is a natural barrier that protects the bladder lining from the urine. This barrier is called the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer. If this barrier is damaged, urine comes into direct contact with the tissues of the bladder lining and over time can cause damage to these tissues.

Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) is instilled directly into the bladder. The procedure is quite painless and may be undertaken in a hospital/clinic, or self-administered following instruction from a Health Care Professional. For best results, Hyaluronic Acid should be retained in the bladder for as long as possible (a minimum of 30 minutes).

Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) is administered initially once weekly, for four consecutive weeks, then monthly for 4 months. You may need a top up treatment 3 weekly every 3 months.

Potential side effects are minor and include mild bladder pain and small risk of urine infection

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common,  can be painful and uncomfortable, but they can be easily treated with a course of antibiotics.

UTIs are more common in women than in men. Up to half the population of women will suffer a urinary tract infection (UTI) within their lifetime, of which 25−35% will have a recurrent urinary tract infection within 3−6 months.

A recurrent UTI is defined as three or more uncomplicated infections documented by urine culture in the last 12 months.

Women are more likely than men to have a UTI. This is because in women, the urethra is closer to the anus than it is in men. Also, the urethra is much shorter in women, making it easier for bacteria to reach the bladder.
You are also more likely to develop a UTI if you have:

  • a condition that obstructs or blocks your urinary tract, such as kidney, ureter and bladder stones.
  • High post-vpoid residual volume: a condition that prevents you fully emptying your bladder (it’s easier for bacteria to multiply if urine stays in the bladder for too long)
  • A weakened immune system from chemotherapy or HIV for example.
  • a urinary catheter – a tube inserted into your bladder to drain away the urine.
  • Others: poorly controlled diabetes, cystocele or rectocele, poor fluid intake and constipation

Some urinary symptoms – such as those outlined below – are due to problems in the bladder or urethra. Sometimes the cause of your symptoms will be clear from X-rays or tests of your blood or urine, but often the only way your doctor can be sure what is going on is to look inside your bladder. A cystoscopy can help to diagnose the causes of symptoms such as:

  • Blood in your urine (haematuria)
  • Frequent urinary tract infections
  • Difficulty or pain when urinating (passing urine)
  • Frequency in passing urine (going more often day and night)
  • Slow urinary stream
  • Incontinence of urine (inability to control when you urinate).

A cystoscopy is a procedure that looks at the bladder and other parts of the urinary system. It involves inserting a special tube, called a cystoscope, into the urethra and then passing it through to the bladder. There are two types of cystoscope: rigid and flexible.

Your examination will use a flexible cystoscope, which is a fibre-optic tube that can move around bends in the urinary system. It is about the thickness of a pencil and has a tiny video camera on one end, so the doctor can view an image of your urinary system on a screen.

Flexible cystoscopes are generally used to help make a diagnosis or to see if a treatment has been successful.

Renal colic is a pain in the flank (loin) caused by a stone in the kidney or ureter, sometimes associated with blood in the urine (Gross or microscopic haematuria). Treatment should include analgesia (pain killers) and further stone management will depend on the location of the stone. Your doctor will discuss this with you in detail.

It is the presence of blood in the urine, either during a urine test (microscopic haematuria) or you can see it when you pass urine (red urine or visible haematuria). This is a serious symptom that needs to be investigated urgently and thoroughly by a urologist. It can be caused by serious conditions such as cancers of the bladder and kidney. It can also be caused by urinary infections or urinary stones (kidney stones). Please ask your doctor to refer you for a urology opinion.

Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) treatment is used to treat bladder overactivity including urinary frequency, urgency and urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence is when a person loses the ability to control their urine resulting in leakage of urine. Urinary incontinence has many different causes and it can be distressing and can severely affect everyday life.
A small, slim needle electrode (like an acupuncture needle) is temporarily inserted just above your ankle. The needle electrode is then connected to the battery-powered stimulator. The stimulator delivers a mild electric current along the needle into the tibial nerve.

A swelling in the scrotum (sac) can be related to the presence of fluid (hydrocele, epididymal cyst), hernia, dilated blood vessels of the testis (varicocele), infection and trauma of the testis. However, a lump in the testis is a condition that needs urgent medical attention to rule out testicular cancer. Please ask your doctor to refer you to a urologist.

A circumcision could be performed if you wish to have it done for cultural or religious reasons. However it could be indicated to treat foreskin problems such as: tight foreskin (phimosis) and recurrent foreskin infections.

Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) a protein produced by the prostate. A raised PSA on a blood test may indicate the presence of cancer of the prostate. However, PSA could also be raised as a result of a benign enlargement of the prostate, Urinary tract infection, a recent operation on the prostate or catheter insertion. Please ask your doctor if you have any concerns.

it is a painful condition of the prostate caused by infection or inflammation. You will feel pain in the perineum and genital area and sometimes during ejaculation. Your urologist will advise of some investigations to be done, and treatment options include antibiotics.

It is a similar condition to female menopause. It is related to a decrease in the male hormone Testosterone, with age. The symptoms are: Low energy level, Low well being Decreased muscle bulk/power, Loss of libido, and problems with erection.

It is a consistent or recurrent inability to achieve and/or maintain erection of the penis sufficient for sexual intercourse. It can be associated with high Alcohol intake, smoking, some medications, heart disease, diabetes, high Cholesterol, high blood pressure and a low Testosterone. It can also associate some emotional and psychiatric conditions.

It is a reliable form of male contraception. It involves cutting the two tubes (vas deferens) that carry sperm from your testicles to your penis. It will not affect your sex drive or ability to enjoy sex and you will still have erections and produce the same amount of fluid when you ejaculate. The only difference is that the fluid will not contain sperm.

A vasectomy reversal is an operation to rejoin each of the tubes that carry sperm from your testicles to your penis, which were cut during your vasectomy. Vasectomy reversal operations are more successful if they are done fairly soon after the original vasectomy. About 8 out of 10 men father children when their vasectomy is reversed within three years. If 15 years or more have passed since the vasectomy, this success rate falls to about 3 out of 10 men. It is important to understand that success is not guaranteed. Even if the operation is technically successful, the presence of sperm in your semen doesn’t guarantee that your partner will get pregnant.

The symptoms of prostate cancer could be similar to a benign enlargement of the prostate. Your Urologist will perform a clinical examination including a rectal examination, and may request a blood test (PSA: Prostate Specific Antigen) to help with the diagnosis. Treatment options will be discussed with you according to your specific condition.

The common symptoms are: increased urine frequency especially during the night, a sensation of needing to rush to empty bladder (urgency), and difficulty in starting the urine stream and a slow stream and sometimes an intermittent (stop-start) stream with dribbling after passing urine.

They start with medical treatment (tablets called alpha blockers, and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors). Now we aim to treat benign enlarged prostates in a non-invasive surgical way. This would include Urolift, Greenlight laser prostate vaporisation. Sometimes we need to perform other types of surgical resection like bi-polar Tras-urethral resection of the prostate (TURP), depending on your condition. Please ask your doctor.

It is a form of prostate surgery to remove an benign enlarged prostate. The main advantage over conventional electrical surgery is that there is less bleeding. As a result of this you can have surgery as a day case without having to stay in hospital for 4 or 5 days and recovery is faster.

UroLift is a minimally invasive treatment option for men with symptomatic BPH. It is suitable for men who have a prostate volume less than 60 cc and who don’t want to take medications or have side effects from these drugs or who wish not to have tissue removal surgery such as a GreenLight laser prostatectomy or TURP. UroLIft is performed as a day case, requires no urinary catheter and has a short recovery period. Improvements in function are generally significantly better than with medication and not associated with any form of sexual dysfunction. This means no erectile nor ejaculatory dysfunction.

It is important to take the prescribed medications correctly and to drink plenty of fluids (at least 2 litres of water a day) and sometimes Cranberry Juice can help.

It is a problem with involuntary leak of urine. This could be in the form of: Urge Urinary incontinence: needing to rush to the toilet and inability to hold urine until reaching the toilet, leading to a leak. Stress Urinary incontinence: urine leaks during activities such as sports, walking, coughing and sneezing. Mixed urge and stress incontinence.

It is an uncommon painful condition of the bladder that most commonly affects females. The symptoms can resemble a urine infection but the urine test is negative. You may complain of urgency (rush to the toilet sensation), increased frequency of urination and bladder pain in the lower abdomen. Your Urologist will need to do more specialist tests to diagnose it. Please ask your doctor for further information.

Botox (botulinum toxin) is produced by bacteria called Clostridia botulinum. In some cases where all other treatments have failed to control frequency and urge incontinence, Botox may be needed to treat such symptoms. The main benefits of this therapy are relaxing the bladder muscle leading to a decrease in the number of times you go to the toilet, more warning to reach the toilet in time and therefore less chance of incontinence. It is given as a small injection into the bladder through a fine telescope.

This is a test which establishes the muscle activity of the bladder. It is carried out by a nurse and a doctor. Fine tubes are placed in your bladder and rectum (back passage). To prevent any discomfort, a local anaesthesia gel is used. The bladder will be gently filled with warmed sterile fluid and the muscle activity is monitored on a computer. You will be asked to empty your bladder at the end of the test. For further information and a leaflet regarding this test please press: Urodynamic study leaflet
Also before the urodynamic study you need to complete 2-day input output fluid chart: Input output fluid chart.

They are related to which part of the urinary tract is affected: Cystitis causes painful urination, increased urinary frequency and feeling of needing to empty the bladder urgently, with sometimes urine leak. If the Kidneys are affected (pyelonephritis/ kidney infection) there will be loin pain and high temperature (fever).

No. This could be a problem affecting both women and men, and also children

By life-style adjustments such as: Good fluid intake, decrease bladder irritant drinks (coffee, tea, fizzy drinks), management of constipation, bladder training and pelvic floor exercise. There are different types of drugs to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles and relax the bladder. Sometimes, you may need an operation If these simple measures don’t work. Please ask your doctor for further advice.